cashmere

How to Wash and Preserve Cashmere Scarves

Nowadays, wearing scarves has becoming a fashionable element in people’s daily life. More and more people like to use scarves to match their clothes. Cashmere scarves are expensive and precious. They are a mark of elegance and nobility. Then how to wash and store them in good shape are very essential. Here are some washing tips:

First, the cashmere scarves should be immersed into a tub of warm water about 35℃, pour some neutral detergent such as shampoo or special detergent for cashmere into the tub, and then soak the scarves for a quarter or half an hour before washing. After that, give the scarves a few gentle taps, do not scrub them.

Second, clean the scarves with water, then squeeze the water out of the washed scarves with hands gently, make sure to remember that do not twist them. After that, put the scarves into the cloth bag and then dehydrate in the wash machine. Then bring them out and lay flat to dry.

Third, do not twist or hang dry to avoid deformation.

Forth, multi-colored cashmere scarves can’t be soaked and the cashmere scarves of different colors can’t be washed together to avoid cross-color.

Fifth, if your cashmere scarves are badly soiled, you can soak them for a longer time or just bring them to dry cleaners to wash directly.

Cashmere scarves are exquisite and precious; therefore, after knowing the right washing methods, knowing how to preserve Cashmere scarves is also extremely important.

When it gets warmer, cashmere scarves are no longer used, we need to pay much attention to its storage. The following are some maintenance skills.

First, because cashmere fiber is thin, it can’t withstand firm pressure, and it belongs to the animal protein fiber, the cashmere scarves should be well cleaned and dried before its storage to prevent moths from eating the scarves.

Second, don’t put them in the same bags with other clothes. Cashmere scarves can hang with clothes hangers to make them flat.

Third, remember to keep them in a dry, ventilated, and light proof place.

Forth, wrap mothproofing agent in thick paper, remember not to let them touch the cashmere scarves directly.

scarf image

Tips on Wearing Scarf Fashionably

Scarves are not only the accessory to offer warm and comfort but also brighten you up as a chic and gorgeous ornament. Wearing a scarf is one of the easiest methods to enhance your appearance and increase the feeling of elegance and temperament. However, it is not simply a matter of wrap-around-your-neck, but a comprehensive consideration of color, material, size and methods of making up with them. The follows are some suggestions of wearing scarf fashionably.

When you are thinking about colors, it is better for you to consider your skin tone. Take something for example, if your complexion is a little bit dark, I advise you not wear scarf in deep colors. That is to say, if you are in a light skin color, try something dark which is practicable. Since a scarf is tied just alongside of your face, you are also supposed to make sure that the color has to highlight your makeup and match with the color and style of your jewelry. For example, a longer necklace might be hidden by the knitwear types or the color of scarf conflicts with your eyeshades or eye-rings. It is kind of hard for you to select a perfect color to neutralize the two colors, whereas with many attempts, you will definitely seek out those satisfying ones.

As to the materials, there are many categories, such as silk, cotton, knitwear, and wool and so on. The essential part is to make the material of your scarf and cloth harmonious, exactly, for instance, it is really not wise to wear a tinny silk scarf in winter which is not warm and match with your bulky outfit; and if you are piling on scarves with big and thick scarf, I think you definitely look more clumsy in winter. It is advisable to consider twice on the question that the necessity to add a scarf and what material to choose. I think it is wrong to wear something just large and shapeless. As far as I am concerned, a vintage silk scarf shows a more traditional feeling. Silk or fringed one is great for summer clothes. What’s more, knitwear styles are good for outdoor jackets to obtain more convince, comfort and casual feeling.

Anyway, the first thing is to choose the correct type to match your clothes, and then a suitable color to accord with your complexion. Last but not least, a proper method to tie up the scarf making it brilliant as a chic decoration. Go and look for your style

Beads

Aromatherapy Blends for those Interested in Aromatherapy

To fitting an aromatherapy recipe, thousands of aromatherapy blends exist to suit every be obliged, from stress relieving mixtures to skin healing compounds. Aromatherapy Votive Candle If you’re an aromatherapy enthusiast, these blends are essential for making the desired healing salve, oil, or perfume. Picking the erroneous one can mean the difference between healing rough skin and smelling nice.

Simple to Use

Aromatherapy blends are miniature recipes. Citrus Bergamia Think of them as creating the sauce for a pasta dish. Of course, many other ingredients eventually go into the final dish, although the sauce is created from a collection of foods and spices separately before being added to the pasta. Many of these blends are simple proportions of various oils and liquids. Unicorn Oil Warmer For example, to conceptualize an anxiety relief blend, a user might add in 3 drops of clary sage and 1 each of lemon and lavender. The final amount used could be twice that or ten times that, depending on the application.

To mix the aromatherapy blends all together, multiply each ingredient by the same number to keep the proportions the same. Aromatherapy Starter Kit Place the drops of oil into a vial or glass jar and roll between your two hands instead of shaking. Blends can be combined to achieve assorted effects. Body Massage Oil To clutch an anxiety cure bath oil combination, users would simply mix the anxiety relief and bath oil blends without stopping. The whole process takes less than a minute, though it’s recommended that users make only small quantities of the substances at a time to preserve the quality of the proportions. Too hugely of one thing can be as crappy as too little of another, and the entire blend might have undesirable odors.

Where to Find

Essential oils, most most often a key ingredient in aromatherapy blends, can be discovered at bath stores. Aromatherapy Diffuser For ten or twenty dollars, enthusiasts have enough materials to assemble a year’s amount of blends, producing aromatherapy even more affordable than before. Instead of having an excess of blends that they never use, users can make the products they be obliged on the spot in just a occasional seconds with little effort. Not only can they save hundreds of dollars each year, after all they will never have to throw away blends that they don’t use or have found they don’t like. Aromatherapy Jewelry These blends can be added to a great deal different products, such as hand cream and bath oil to conceptualize an entrancing aroma that will ease the worst stresses.

Aromatherapy enthusiasts owe it to themselves to learn the secrets of producing their own mixtures. Essential Oil Bath Salt They’ll save huge money, have ideas for timeless gifts for holidays, and know how to relax oneself anywhere. Aromatherapy blends help make a healthier life.

aqua

Aromatherapy Bath Products for Many Uses

Aromatherapy has caught on huge as a way to relax using pleasant scents, and one of the many common ways to enjoy this is all through the use of aromatherapy bath products. Gifts It’s the combination of steaming water to relax your muscles and the scents of aromatherapy bath products that can make it easy to relax in the evening. Orange Essential Oil There are a conglomeration of aromatherapy bath products to use, after all what you use depends on your preferences. Let’s talk about a minimum aromatherapy bath products so you can choose what’s exemplar for you.

The Basics: Essential Oils

The scents in most aromatherapy bath products come from essential oils, which are oils extracted from plants that tend to hold concentrated scents from those plants. Glass Oil Candle These can be purchased and added to your bathwater to make it fragrant, after all keep in mind that you will only want to add a few drops at many, as the concentrated essential oils are certainly intense, and too hugely in association with your skin can be uncomfortable. Herbal Essential Oil If you want to make it easier and safer to have a scented bath, pass on the oils and go for other aromatherapy bath products.

Bath Salts For Your Health

Bath salts are being sold as aromatherapy bath products these days, as manufacturers combine the salts with essential oils to bring to effect an easy way to have a scented bath omitting adding too much of the essential oils. Custom Scented Candle These salts have benefits that go beyond only the scent of the bath, though. Some salts will make it easier to exfoliate when washing, which leads to healthier skin, howbeit salts based on magnesium sulfate can act as an anti-inflammatory agen Aromatherapy Associates So, for an aromatic bath with more health benefits, consider scented bath salts.

Add Fun With Bath Bombs

Also known as bath fizzies, bath bombs are another class of aromatherapy bath products that can add scents to your bathwater, though in this case, they can add some contentment as well. Pacific Institute Of Aromatherapy Typically made with scented oils, baking soda, and weak acids like citric acid, when a bath bomb hits the water, the baking soda and acid combine and fizz, just as most elementary school students observe at one time. Natural Massage Oil The fizz creates a tickling, massaging sensation as the water bubbles around you, and the scents capture released. Fragrance Oil Manufacturer So, as we can see, there is a assortment of aromatherapy bath products that can meet any of your needs, whether you want the scents in their purest form, supplemental health benefits from what you put in the water, or just scented water and a little fun.

aquamarine

An Introduction To Aromatherapy Beads

In aromatherapy it is widely believed that what a person breathes is of great importance when it comes to their health and well being. Carrier Oil For Aromatherapy Massage This is why aromatherapy beads have been created. These encapsulate pure essential oils into a solid form so that you will blessing each time you inhale the aroma from these aromatherapy beads.

What Aromatherapy Beads Are

Aromatherapy beads are a modern alternative to potpourri and they actually last 3 times longer than potpourri does. Aromatherapy Essential This is whereas these beads are infused with essential oils. They are additionally very colorful, so if you want to add a sensory exposure to the home decor that you already have, this is how to do it. Prenatal Massage Plus, you ought to furthermore know that these aromatherapy beads are likewise completely inexpensive. In fact 2 ounces will be a agreeable size to order and this will only cost you around $7.

How To Use Aromatherapy Beads

There are 3 methods in which these aromatherapy beads can be used. First of all, you can simply leave them in an open container. Secondly, you can place them in an air diffuser that does not employ heat. Essential Oil Online Third, you can leave them in an organza bag. Healing With Essential Oil These are minute 3″ x 4″ bags that are made out of a material that is similar to gauze so that the scent can easily escape. They come in a variety of vibrant colors.

Aromatherapy Containers

Another way in which you can use your aromatherapy beads is by purchasing a minute necklace that allows you to place your beads inside of it. Essential Oil Fragrance You can then acquire your favorite scent with you wherever you go. Aromatherapy Oil Diffuser These stunning vessels look great as a wearable aromatherapy container.

What Aromatherapy Beads Look Like

There are a great deal different looks that these beads are within reach in. Young Life Essential Oil However, the many esteemed aromatherapy beads are those that are either jeweled or made of polish beach glass. These are the ones that you are really going off to want to obtain if you want to beautifully accent your environment with aromatherapy beads.

One artist that makes these glass beads is Kim Miles. Lavender Oil Use She is very talented and has ergo been able to create one very lovely lamp worked beads. One of these beads, such as her layered flower beads, are absolutely amazing.
The Varying Scents Available

Before you go shopping for your aromatherapy beads, you will be obliged to know what you are seeking for. Aromatherapy Atomizer This is since different essential oils are well-suited to achieve different items. For suggestion, f you have help falling asleep, then you are going to want a combination of lemon grass, orange and seaweed. On the other hand, if you are feeling congested, then you will want a combination of eucalyptus, peppermint and lemon grass.

natural

Emotional Health and Essential Oils

The natural properties found in essential oils produce a soothing, uplifting effect on the mind and emotions. When an oil containing the optimum level of therapeutic constituents is diffused or applied topically, the result fosters a sense of emotional balance and well-being. Studies in Europe have found that pure therapeutic grade essential oils quickly stimulate the hypothalamus where the emotions are stored.Essential Oils for Improved Emotional WellnessWhen the aroma of essential oils is inhaled, the scent travels to the reticular system of the brain stem where emotions and memories are connected. This enables essential oils to improve emotional wellness in many ways. Those haunted by negative memories can use a cleansing blend, and in times of stress or mental fatigue a rejuvenating oil can remove emotional stressors and leave you feeling mentally invigorated. Other essential oils increase feelings of courage and determination when faced with life’s many challenges. Regardless of your emotional health, the therapeutic properties harnessed in essential oils can help you improve or regain an optimal state of emotional wellness.Essential Oils and the Mind.

Smell is the only one of the five senses directly linked to the limbic lobe—the emotional control centre—of the brain. From anxiety to tension, fatigue to stress, essential oils have long been appreciated for their uplifting, calming, and clarifying effects on emotional wellness. By diffusing essential oils or applying them topically to targeted areas of the body, therapeutic constituents re-establish balance where stress or mental discomfort has disrupted healthy emotional function.

To bring yourself into a state of emotional balance, consider using essential oils either by diffusing or applied topically.Applying Essential Oils Topically to Help Balance the Mind.

Essential oils can be applied through self massage. Here are some commonly used techniques for self-massage:

• Head Massage: Rub essential oils into the base of the skull, the crown of the head, or on the temples in a circular motion.

• Face Massage: Place a few drops of essential oils onto your hands and rub them together. Lightly cup your face in your hands; the warmth of your hands and aroma of the oils will aid in relaxation.

• Jaw Massage: Rub 1–2 drops of oil into the soft spot just below your ear lobe to release undue tension.

• Torso Massage: For a quick energy boost rub oils into the area above the kidneys.

• Foot Massage: There are many pressure points in the feet that correspond to other body systems. Rubbing the soles of the feet with essential oils is a great way to release tension.

All of the above techniques can assist to bring the body back into balance. These techniques are particularly effective in times when the body is experiencing stress.There are Pure Therapeutic Essential Oils that can assist with Emotional Wellness

• Valor: An empowering combination of oils designed to enhance an individual’s internal resources.

• Peace & Calming: relieves tension and uplift the spirit.

• White Angelica: A calming and soothing blend that encourages feelings of protection and security.

• Harmony: Promotes physical and emotional well-being.

• Release: Facilitates the ability to release anger and frustration.

• Clarity: Promotes a clear mind and alertness.

• Gratitude: Designed to elevate the spirit, calm emotions, and bring relief to the body.

• Trauma Life: Formulated to help release buried emotional trauma.

• Feelings Collection: Features six essential oil blends formulated to promote emotional clearance and self renewal. Treat Yourself to an emotional cleansing with essential oils today!

allspice

Allspice Berry Essential Oil

Allspice is the dried berry of the pimento. Allspice is an evergreen tree and grows about 40 feet tall. The Allspice leaves are leathery in appearance. Allspice has tiny white flowers and grows from June to August. The fruit are sweet and fleshy and purple-black in color when ripe. Allspice berries are collected when they have reached full size but are not ripe. The berries taste has beendescribes as a combination of juniper berries, cinnamon, cloves and pepper. Allspice plants originates from the West indies, Central America, South america and Mexico.Allspice

Essential Oil properties:
Allspice essential oil is a beneficial oill for easing circulation, muscle and joint problems such as arthritis, muscle cramp, rheumatism and stiffness. Allspice essential oil is a good oil for the respiratory system helping chills, congested coughs and bronchitis. Allspice essential oil is useful in treating digestive disorders such as cramp, flatulence, indigestion and nausea. Allspice essential oil also helps depression, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, tension and stress.

Home uses: Baths, inhalation and massage. For easing arthritis, muscle cramp, rheumatism and stiffness add 2 drops of allspice essential oil to a hot bath and relax for about 10 minutes. For easing chills, congested coughs and bronchitis add 2 drops of allspice essential oil and have a steam inhalation. For depression, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia, tension and stress put 2 drops of allspice essential oil on a tissue and inhale. To help to ease digestive problems add 2 drops of allspice essential oil to 20 mls of carrier and massage into the abdomen.

Suggested Blends: To ease arthritis, rheumatism, muscle cramps and stiffness add 2 drops of allspice essential oil to 4 drops of geranium essential oil to a bath and relax for about 10 minutes. To help to ease digestive problems add 2 drops of allspice essential to 2 drops of ginger essential oil, to 20 mls of carrier oil and massage into the abdomen.
For easing chills, congested coughs and bronchitis add 2 drops of allspice essential to 2 drops of lavender essential oil, put the oils into a bowl and have a steam inhalation. For depression, nervous exhaustion, neuralgia and stress add 2
drops of allspice essential oil to 2 drops of neroli essential oil and put the oils on a tissue and inhale.Precautions:
Allspice essential oil must be used moderately because it can irritate the mucus membranes.Blends well with: Ginger essential oil, geranium essential oil, lavender essential oil, ylang ylang essential oil, patchouli essential
oil and neroli essential oil.To be directed to a reputable, reliable, well established and reasonably priced supplier with an excellent quality control system.

hydrosol

Top Five Essential Oils: What Are They And How Are They Used?

Essential oils are extracts, in highly concentrated form, which can be made from virtually any plant variety. These oils are used for many purposes, but are particularly prized for their medicinal properties. Used for homeopathic treatment and aromatherapy, stong extracts of aromatic plants have long been a therapeutic ingredient in a variety of concoctions, created to soothe both the body and the spirit. Common uses for essential oils are as ingredients in cosmetics, cleansers and perfumes.

Although there are, at least hundreds, and probably thousands of essential oils available, the five oils showcased in this article could be called the most essential of all essential oils. These are five of the most popular oils, commonly used in everything from shampoos to over-the-counter health aides. Although you may find some disagreement among the most popular and frequently used oils, there’s no debate that the five mentioned below are among the best sellers and most widely utilized.

Lavender Oil is probably the most frequently used essential oil and the most widely available. Lavender is a popular and easy to grow plant, that is cultivated in commercial and home gardens, worldwide. Lavender oil is inexpensive and valued for its pleasant, clean and calming aroma.

Lavender oil is one of the few essential oils that can be applied directly to the skin and is often used in this manner for antibacterial and antiseptic applications. Lavender oil is stimulative, and can aide in the healing process, by increasing blood flow to injured areas, where it also provides mild analgesic effects. Lavender’s pain easing properties make it particularly effective for burns and insect stings. Lavender oil can be used for massage and aromatherapy, where it has the ability to ease tension and anxiety, in addition to improving circulatory and respiratory issues. It is sometimes used in cooking and can function as a digestive tonic. The scent of lavender is popular in air fresheners, candles, bathing preperations and skin lubricants.

Eucalyptus oil comes from the leaves of the eucalyptus tree, grown worldwide in regions experiencing plentiful rainfall. The strong odor of eucalyptus makes it ideal for aromatherapeutic use, where it clears respiratory passages, improves circulation and invigotates the mind and body.

Strongly antiseptic properties, make eucalyptus oil ideal for repelling insects and rapidly cleansing the air. As an anti-inflammatory, eucalyptus can be used to ease sore muscles, strains and sprains, or the pain of arthiritis. Other medicinal uses for eucalyptus are to relieve itch, swelling and infection.

Lemon oil is extracted from the natural oils in the skin of the lemon fruit. The revitalizing scent of lemon oil makes it particularly desired as a freshening agent in many household products. Soaps, cleansers, detergents and polishing products are often scented with lemon oil. Many cosmetics and preparations for use on the skin, nails and hair also use lemon oil.

Lemon oil is widely thought to be an antidepressant, and is often combined with other flavors in cough, sore throat and cold remedies. Lemon oil increases a sense of well-being, and posesses antihistimine, antiseptic and antiviral properties.

Lemon essential oil is used as a flavoring in desserts. It is also a popular additive to home remedies for detoxification of the digestive tract and skin.

Tea Tree Oil extracted from the various parts of the Melaleuca plant or Tea Tree is a popular cosmetic ingredient, and is used in a multitude of cosmetic preparations, including shampoos, antiseptics, insect repellents and acne preparations.

Care should be taken when using tea tree oil, as it is a strong stimulant and can be absorbed into the skin. Tea tree oil stimulates circulation and is effective against fungus and bacterial growth. Its stimulative and antiseptic properties make it ideal for cleansing and first aide use. Gum disease and athlete’s foot can also be treated with tea tree oil.

Peppermint oil is stimulating and energizing. Used in sports medicine, peppermint oil creates a sensation of cooling or warming, that is also ideal for clearing a head or chest cold. Ointments to stimulate circulation often incorporate peppermint oil, which also decreases inflammation.

Peppermint oil is well-known as a digestive tonic to soothe an upset stomach, whether it is caused by over indulgence, disease or motion sickness. Cough drops and breath fresheners use peppermint oil for its freshening, expectorant and antiseptic properties.

Peppermint oil has a popular flavoring, and is widely used in the manufacture of candy, confections and baked goods.

When choosing essential oils to use for home remedies and household purposes, these five oils are low cost and have many benefits. They have low toxicity and can be easily incorporated into many useful products for everyday use. It’s no wonder that these five versatile essential oils make the top of the list, for popularity and utility.

party

Regalos para Baby Shower

Cada día se ha incrementado la tendencia a valorar de manera positiva el hecho de procrear; y por ende las acciones que vienen después de la reproducción. Desde hace siglos en diferentes culturas se simboliza el nacimiento como un evento de felicidad, celebración y prosperidad.

Algunos críticos consideran que el baby shower en lugar de respresentar lo anteriormente mencionado; más bien se ha convertido en un juego comercial, con el cual sólo se pretende recolectar bienes materiales que no constituyen ningún aporte espiritual. Otros piensan en la sobre población y el agotamiento de los recursos naturales. Sin embargo esto no disminuye la tendencia especialmente por parte de las mujeres a interesarse por aclamar la llegada de nuevos seres humanos a sus vidas.

El baby Shower es uno de los regalos más esperados por la futura madre, consta de una pequeña reunión que generalmente se da durante el día, es informal, en él los amigos más cercanos se unen para festejar e inaugurar a los futuros padres.

Tipos de regalos en el baby shower.

Pastel de pañales para baby Shower: es también conocido como Tarta de pañales para baby shower ó torta de pañales para baby shower. Es un regalo que consiste en una torre de pañales para el futuro bebé, su figura se asemeja a la de un pastel matrimonial ó una torre de Hanói. Pero también se puede transformar en carrusel, motocicleta, ferrocarril, triciclo, canasta, castillo, animales, aviones, camiones y muchas cosas más.

  1. Para su construcción lo primero que se debe definir es el personaje o cosa que se pretende representar. Ya sea un dibujo animado que le llame la atención a la futura madre o cualquier objeto de referencia.
  2. Recolección de los materiales: en este caso varía de acuerdo con la cantidad de pisos y la forma que prefieran las personas que lo construyan. Pero en caso de que sean 3 pisos en la forma más común; es decir pastel. Pañales para recién nacidos, una base de papel o tela para soporte del pastel, cauchos pequeños para el cabello, otras más grandes, alfileres, ganchos para ropa, cuenta trasparente, tijeras, tiras de papel globo, cinta de tela una gruesa y otra delgada, tubo de cartón de papel de cocina, objetos de animación preferida para decoración.
  3. Proceso de construcción:
  4. se deben envolver los pañales de una punta a otra y se amarra con un caucho de cabello pequeño en la mitad.
  5. Poner el tubo de cartón en la mitad de la base y sujetarlo con cinta, de tal manera que quede firme.
  6. Se coloca un caucho de los grandes alrededor del tubo y se va ajustando con los pañales previamente enrollados dentro del caucho y entorno al tubo, para formar la primera base, y así sucesivamente se van armando los pisos del pastel. Se debe acomodar la cantidad de pañales de acuerdo con lo que considere más acorde con su observación.
  7. Cuando se tiene los pisos listos, se procede a decorara al gusto con los materiales adicionales. Con los listones grandes se trata de cubrir los cauchos, y así puede definir si le gustaría que se vean los pañales ó preferiría cubrirlo con los objetos adquiridos a través de los alfileres y ganchos de ropa.

Es utilizada por muchos grupos de amigas que quieren homenajear en conjunto a la madre y hacer una inversión en grupal que pueda satisfacer las necesidades de la misma a la llegada del bebé.

Objetos para el bebé y sus padres: los cuentos infantiles, libro de recetas para comida de bebes, preparar una cena para que los padres se distraigan, gimnasio para bebes, silla de descanso para mecer al bebé, un corral para que el niño descanse, monitores portátiles para escuchar al bebé cuando se despierte, vestuario para recién nacido, artículos de aseo del bebé, juguetes, una cangurera, entre otras cosas de apoyo y desarrollo para los padres.

aborigen

Colonialismo como un amplio determinante de la salud

Problemáticas: los determinantes sociales de la salud, están afectando en la actualidad, el abordaje de la salud de la población aborigen. A causa de los ambientes construidos durante la colonización. Uno de las consecuencias ha sido un trauma intergeneracional de las comunidades indígenas, que sufren a falta de ajuste de su cosmovisión dentro de las políticas del gobierno y su toma de decisiones frente a las mismas. Es decir, las políticas se convierten en la causa de las mismas enfermedades.
Objetivos: revisar circunstancias y discursos pertinentes a la salud mental de los indígenas en Canadá.
Sujetos: comunidades indígenas de Canadá.

Aspectos interesantes: trauma intergeneracional, comisión social de los determinantes de la salud, colonialismo, determinantes de la salud, derechos de los indígenas, depresión aborigen, salud y enfermedad mental aborigen, continuidad cultural.

Conclusión: El colonialismo ha impactado a las comunidades indígenas, abarcando reacciones políticas, sociales, económicas que históricamente son el foco de inequidades. Las cuales afectan la salud mental de los mismos. Es decir el sistema y la estructura colonial hizo distal la concepción indígena.
Bibliografía: Czyzewski, K. (2011). Colonialism as a broader social determinant of health. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 2(1), 5.